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Dog Training Educational Resources for Pet Professionals

Welcome PPG members. On this page you will find a selection of articles, books and scientific papers supporting our guiding philosophies on the application and use of force-free training methods. If you would like to submit a link to an article or a scientific paper or you can recommend a good book then please email us.

Why Punishment in Training Does Not Work

Is Punishment an Effective Way to Change the Behavior of Dogs?Use of punishment during dog training leads to increased aggression.. What does come out of this study is a confirmation that the use of punishing techniques on dogs has much the same effect that the use of physical punishment has on human children undefined namely an increase in aggressive behavior in general, and specifically increased aggression toward the individual who is applying the punishment. Read the full article here 

The Rationale for Least Aversive & Least Invasive Training Methods

American Veterinary Society of Animal Behavior (AVSAB) "The Use of Punishment for Behavior Modification in Animals". Read article

The Pet Professional Guild article
Defining, Determining and Maintaining Best Practices within Our Force Free Organization.Written by Debra Milikan, Dip.ABST, Dip.DTBC, PABC. Read article

The Use of Shock Collars

Hiby, E.F.; Rooney, N.J.; Bradshaw, J.W.S. “Dog training methods: their use, effectiveness and interaction with behaviour and welfare.” Click here for an abstract of the article.

Schalke E, Stichnoth J, Ott S and Jones-Baade R. “Clinical signs caused by the use of electric training collars on dogs in everyday life situations.” Click here for the article abstract

Beerda, B. 1998 Behavioral, saliva cortisol, and heart rate responses to different types of stimuli in dogs. Click here for the article abstract

N.H. Azrin, H.B: Rubin, R.R: Hutchinson Biting Attack by Rats In Response To Aversive Shock. Click here for the article

Emily Blackwell, Rachel Casey The use of shock collars and their impact on the welfare of dogs: Click here for the article

Matthijs B.H. Schilder, Joanne A.M. van der Borg Training dogs with help of the shock collar: short and long term behavioural effects Click here for the article

Steinker, Angelica. The Problem With Shock Click here for the full article

Dennison, Pam. Why I Really Hate Electronic Shock (invisible)fencing Click here for the full article

Dominance Theory

Using 'Dominance' To Explain Dog Behavior Is Old Hat, Science Daily. Click here to read the article

Canine Dominance: Is the Concept of the Alpha Dog Valid? Current research challenges the idea of the alpha dog. Published on July 20, 2010 by Stanley Coren, Ph.D., F.R.S.C. in Canine Corner Click here

The Dominance Controversy, Dr. Sophia Yin. Click here to read the full article

The American Veterinary Society of Animal Behavior (AVSAB) Position Statement on The Use of Dominance Theory in Behavior Modification of Animals. Click here to read the full statement

Steinker, A. (2007). Social–Psychological Dynamics in Dog Training: The Power of Authority and Social Role Designation and its Possible Effects on Dog Training. Journal of Applied Companion Animal Behavior, 1(1), 7-14. Click here to purchase this article

Steinker, A. (2007). Terminology Think Tank: Social dominance theory as it relates to dogs, Journal of Veterinary Behavior 2, 137-140. Click here to access this article

John W.S., Bradshaw , Emily J., Blackwell , Rachel A., Casey. Dominance in domestic dogs -- useful construct or bad habit? Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, May/June 2009, Pages 135-144 Click here for the abstract

L. David Mech (1999) (PDF). Alpha status, dominance, and division of labor in wolf packs. Click here to access this article

Dr. L. David Mech talks about the terms "alpha" and "beta" wolves and why they are no longer scientifically accurate. Click here to watch the video

Tools To Avoid

Electric collar training reviewed (Connie Borwick)


Clinical signs caused by the use of electric training collars on dogs in everyday life situations (Dept. of Animal Welfare and Behavior, Veterinary School of Hannover, Germany)


A dog's perspective on shock collars speaks volumes, are we listening?  (Adrienne Janet Farricelli)


Why are we still putting shock collars on dogs?  (Anna Jane Grossman)


Training with shock collars – why you should just say “no” (Beverly Hebert)


 On shocking our dogs (Trish King)


When good intentions breed animal suffering: the cruel truth of electronic shock collars (Joan Lownds)


An open letter from Dr. Karen Overall regarding the use of shock collars (Dr. Karen Overall)


Considerations for shock and “training” collars: concerns from and for the working dog community (Dr. Karen Overall)


Position statement on the use of shock in animal training (Pet Professional Guild)


Electric collars – no thanks (Positive Police Dogs)


Zap vs. tap: a rose is a rose is a rose (Anne Springer)


The problem with shock (Angelica Steinker)


Training dogs with the help of the shock collar: short and long term behavioral effects (University of Utrecht)


Are shock collars painful or just annoying to dogs?  (Dr. Sophia Yin)


Boundary Training (Steve Benjamin)


Why I really hate electronic shock (invisible) fences (Pamela Dennison)


Invisible fencing doesn't protect dogs (Gail Fisher)


Sophie's story (Leslie Grabowski)


Invisible fences: not a recommended solution (Christine Hibbard)


The visible dangers of invisible fencing (Kim MacMillan)


The ethics of shock collar containment fences for dogs and cats (Dr. Sarah Millsop)


Victoria Stilwell:  Say “no” to electronic fencing (Diane Podolsky)




 “I had to”  (Suzanne Clothier)


Talk softly and carry a carrot or a big stick?  (Jean Donaldson)


Dog training: the trouble with punishment  (Dr. Ian Dunbar)


What's wrong with this picture?  Effectiveness is not enough  (Dr. Susan G. Friedman)


 The possibilities in dog training  (Susan Garrett)


 Dog psychology: The effect of adverse training methods  (Diane Garrod)


 Dangers of aversive training methods  (Diane Garrod)



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