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Which Reinforcement Schedule: When and How? Presented by Alexandra Santos

  • Monday, February 28, 2022
  • 1:00 PM - 2:30 PM
  • GoToWebinar


  • A Discounted Rate for Pet Owner Members
  • PPG Member Registration
  • Pet Professional Guild Australia Registration: The registration code can be found in your member's area on the PPGA website.
  • You can find your registration code listed in the member's area of the PPGBI website.
  • Public Registration


CEUs: PPAB 1.5, CCPDT (pending), IAABC (pending), KPA (pending)

Reinforcement schedules are used to reinforce certain behaviors, behaviors that occur after a certain number of times, after a certain amount of time, or after a time interval between the last reinforced response and the next response that will be reinforced.

In this webinar, we will explore continuous, intermittent, and differential reinforcement. Regarding intermittent reinforcement, we will focus specifically on fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed duration, variable duration, fixed interval and variable interval. As for differential reinforcement we will address differential reinforcement of an incompatible behavior, excellent behavior, alternative behavior and other behavior.

Learning Objectives

- Application of continuous reinforcement according to learning stage.

- How to apply intermittent reinforcement effectively by considering: learning stage; impulsiveness; arousal; resilience and ability to remain focused.

- Avoid ratio strain so the reinforcer doesn’t become a punisher.

- How to decide which differential schedule of reinforcement to use according to behavior problems the dog may be displaying; baseline emotional states (fear learning and learned helplessness).

- How to transition from one differential schedule to another.

About Your Presenter    

Alexandra Santos

Alexandra Santos is a professional canine behavior consultant and trainer, with formal education through The Animal Care College in the U.K. where she graduated with honors for the Diploma of Advanced Canine Psychology, and through The Companion Animal Sciences Institute where she graduated with distinction for the Diploma of Advanced Dog Training.

She is the author of the books “Puppy Problems”, “Puppy Training: How to housetrain your puppy effectively”, “How to leash train your dog and enjoy walking him”, “O meu cão e eu”, “Cão educado, dono feliz” (published in Portugal), and has also authored and co-authored several scientific articles for the Journal of Applied Companion Animal Behavior and the International Institute for Applied Companion Animal Behavior.

Alexandra lives and works in Lisbon, Portugal, as a guest professor at Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias and provides individual coaching for dogs and their people. She has been a presenter at several seminars in Portugal and Brazil on positive reinforcement-based training and regularly presents webinars for the Pet Professional Guild in the USA and Edogtorial in Spain.

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